Jump to content
Kevin von Duuglas-Ittu

Female Fighters & The Rationalization of a Fighting Art: From 19th Century Jiu-jitsu to Women Fighting in Lumpinee

Recommended Posts



Seeing the Ungendered Body As Lines of Force

quoting to begin...



The above are the concluding thoughts of the excellent short article: Fight like a girl! An investigation into female martial practices in European Fight Books from the 14th to the 20th century by Daniel Jaquet. It presents in brief the basis of a coherent argument that though there are physiological differences between the sexes, distributed over a population, martial arts are about developing the advantages you can have that overcome any physical differences that might weigh against you. I present this argument about Muay Thai and women more at length in: The “Natural” Inferiority of Women and The Art of Muay Thai. Just as shorter fighters can fight (and beat) taller fighters, smaller fighters can beat heavier fighters and slower fighters can beat faster fighters, whatever projected or real physiological differences between women and men there may be, they can be overcome. That is the entire point of a fighting art, especially any art stemming from combat contexts. Interestingly enough, Daniel Jaquet actually points to modern "institutional competition" as over-informing the way we think about the capacities of a fighting female. We think in terms of classified differences (weight classes, and even rulesets, etc), and one of these classifications is simply gender.

Fight Like a Girl.pdf

The article documents a conspicuous absence of women regarded as (possibly) equal combatants for nearly 700 years in combat literature, as gender became more codified in the European tradition. Jaquet marks a foothold in the timeline with this sword and shield technical manual in 1305 (Liber de arte dimicatoria), one of the last documentations of an assumed and illustrated gendered equivalence, at least for purposes of instruction.

 Liber de arte dimicatoria (1305)


There is a great deal to think about in this topic at large, but here I'm most interested in the effects modernization, or rationalization of a fighting art can lead to ideas of gender equality, under fighting arts. And some of the ways modernization can push against it was well. Jaquet's finishing remarks (above) speak to this basic, rationalizing idea. Bodies are all different, they are all capable of differing physical actions, amounts of force being applied, speed of reaction times, etc. It follows, just as physical weaponry like swords or shields are force amplifiers, so too are the analogical "weapons and shields" (techniques) when practiced in a fighting art. If you know how to throw (or slip) a punch, you are within a force amplifier. The rationalization of fighting arts is a modernizing concept of extracting aspects of a traditional process of embodied knowledge practice, and classifying it, for pedagogic reasons, analysis, or commercial use. Seeing gendered bodies as force equations is rationalization. If you follow my writings you know that I have a great deal of hesitance regarding the eroding forces involved in the rationalization of fighting arts, both in terms of teaching and commercial performance (we can lose valuable and hidden habitus as we re-contextualize practices), but this does not mean that I wholesale resist rationalization/modernization. Instead it can act as a scissor, weaving and unweaving as it goes. As Jaquet points out, modernization itself also brings forth conventions which can regard important, liberating rationalizations of a fighting art.

How Rationalized Jui-jitsu Changed the Early 20th Century Fight World

What I'm really interested in is something that Jaquet does not pursue, and it's something that I have only touched on in my reading. What follows therefore is going to be only a broad sketch of intuitions that would be interesting areas of study. I was particularly struck by this 1905 photo included in his article:


And the note tells us, this is the Duchess of Bedford training in Jiu-jitsu in England. I have not dug deeply into the history of Jiu-jitsu's immigration to England through Japanese masters, as well as other countries all over the world, but I assume this is part of a powerful rationalization impulse found in Japanese martial arts, much of it typified by Kanō Jigorō and his invention of Judo. Influenced by Western ideas of rational education and theories of utilitarianism Kano had the dream of modernizing traditional Jiu-jitsu along educational and health lines, and spreading this modernized version all over the world, eventually making it an Olympic sport.


Judo and other forms of modern-leaning Jiu-jitsu spread internationally at this time, and the Duchess of Bedford's Jiu-jitsu no doubt was a part of this diaspora of the fighting art. Famously, it reached all the way down to Brazil, eventually becoming today's Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, but at this time it it also reached Siam (Thailand). King Vajiravudh of Siam (reign 1910-1925) was actually raised and educated in England in his youth and young adulthood, for nearly a decade before taking the throne. He brought with him not only an appreciation for British Boxing (which would deeply shape the development of Siam's Muay Thai), but also, one might expect, Judo/Jiu-jitsu which had growing presence in Britain. In 1907, two years after the photo of Mary Russell the Japanese community in Bangkok is recorded as teaching Jui-jitsu, in 1912 Prince Wabulya returns from study abroad in London having learned Judo, and teaches it to enthusiasts and in 1919 Judo is taught at the very important Suan Kulap College, along side British Boxing and the newly named "Muay Thai". It is enough to say that the modernization of Muay Boran into Muay Thai in the 1920s, in the image of Western Boxing (at the time Siam is making efforts to appear civilized in the eyes of the West), was part of an even larger, in fact world wide rationalization effort lead by Judo/Jui-jitsu. When we see this photo of Mary Russell in England, this is part of the one-and-the-same British movements of influence that created modern Muay Thai over the next decades (gloved, weight class, fixed stadium, rounds). Rationalization is happening.

Notably, this unfolds it is in the context of King Chulalonkorn's previous religious reformation of Siam which would have lasting impact on the seats of Siam's Muay Thai, moving it away from temple teachings and magical practices. Siam is becoming a modern Nation, and the reformation of Buddhism (along with Muay Thai) is a significant part of that process:


1902 – Religious Bangkok reforms outlawed non-Thammayut Buddhism mahanikai practices – these were often magical practices, but also boxing related activities were discouraged. It was a move towards orthodoxy that over decades would push muay teachings towards secular teaching (colleges, camps) and away from wat (temple) sources.

from The Modernization of Muay Thai – A Timeline


Returning to the rationalizing efforts of British Jui-jitsu which will almost necessarily un-moor rooted gender bias, with even political consequences. As Jaquet writes, the medical/physical perspective of empowerment and health ended up expressing itself in the Suffragettes Self-Defense Club, to aid in physical confrontations with police:



Now, this certainly was not happening in Siam. In fact Siam/Thailand was busy "civilizing" itself in the eyes of the West by importing the strong Victorian views of powerful visual differences between genders. Modes of dress, differentiating the sexes, were even at one point legally mandated by the government in coming decades. What we today read as quintessentially "Thai" traditional attitudes towards the differences between the sexes though complex is actually, perhaps best explained as a Western value and practice importation during the first half of the 20th century.


The visual differentiation of the sexes in dress: Thai cultural mandate #10 (1941): Polite international-style attire


Civilizing the Savage and Savagizing the Civil

What I'm interested in is the connection between the early 20th century rationalization/modernization of Jui-Juitsu in Britain, and today's rationalization-modernization of Muay Thai in Thailand. The schism between Thailand and Britain in terms of gender, under the guise of "civilization" recently and long last was symbolically bridged when women were finally integrated into Lumpinee Stadium promotion: The First Female Fight In Lumpinee Stadium Breaking the Prohibition. Note: the strong division between the genders of the late 1930s and 1940s in the "international-style" of work and dress is also in the context of the construction of Rajadamnern Stadium (1945) and Lumpinee Stadium (1956) under Thai fascism and Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram (Prime Minister    1938-1944 and 1948-1957). It is unknown what gendered Muay Thai practices may have developed without this heritage of an imitation of the West. As an contemporary outsider we tend to assume these "traditional" gendered differences as purely and essentially "Thai" and not a product of Western example or influence.


Seeing these two photos, well over 100 years apart, in relationship to each other under the view of Internationalized Rationalization of fighting arts is fecund to examination. There is no clean line that leads between rationalization of the art and sport and the equality of the genders. Importantly, and not without irony, when King Vajiravudh modernized Muay Boran in imitation of British Boxing he was attempting to purge Siam and its fighting art of the impression of savageness. Contestants did die in the ring (probably quite rarely) with rope-bound hands, but more importantly the use of feet and elbows and probably much more of Siamese fighting was seen as primitive by British report. Codifying Muay Thai was no simple desire to just imitate the West as superior, as the West used the motive of civilizing "primitive" people to justify the colonization of peoples, including all the countries in Siam's orbit. No doubt King Vajiravudh had adopted many British aesthetics during his decade in British schooling, but there also something prophylactic to the transformation of Muay Thai before the eyes in the West. Now though, Thailand is bending its fighting art to the Internationalist tastes of greater violence, more aggression, as part of a vision that is pushing it to join what might be seen as a globalized Combat Sports Industrial Complex, battling for eyeballs. And, as I say ironically enough, with this comes the rising commercial viability of women seen as equals. As Lumpinee Stadium seeks to Internationalize itself it brings in women, and also it brings in the "savagery" for which Siam's fighting was (politically and colonially) stigmatized over 100 years ago, as MMA comes to its storied name. The "Be more civilized!" and "Distinguish the genders!" that was once demanded by the globalizing West has become "Be more violent!" and "Equalize the genders!" by the globalizing West...a West that is actually now an Internationalist vision.

What is missing from this story perhaps is the equivalence of Britain's Suffragettes Self-Defense Club, which is to say the way in which equality under a martial arts rationalization is connected to the political fight for women's liberties and rights. From my view I suspect that the growing importance of respected female fighting in combat sports is an expression of the increased social and economic capital women have in a globalized world. Women as having real and imagined physical prowess in the traditionally male-coded ring (and cage) symbolically manifests actual changes in female powers in society. Women in rings has grown out of the Suffragettes Self-Defense Club, not now equalizing themselves with embodied knowledge in the streets against police, but rather signifying their political and socio-economic heft to a globalized world. Yet, as all things bend back, the commercialized capture of symbolized female power in the ring is part of its re-domestication, as women's bodies become sites of judgement and eroticized re-packaging, problemizing any overriding narrative of liberty. As women are called to the ring under the auspices of aggression-first promotional fight theater in the double-bind navigation of globalized freedoms, the role of rationalization remains circumspect. Rationalization can and does lead to the re-codification of the genders, as we see with the conventions of institutional competition, as well as within the commodification of the female person and body by combat sport entertainment, yet it also holds the power to un-moor entrenched sexism and bias which work to restrict the possibilities of women as fighter who stands as proxy to the power of women in general.

  • Like 1
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now

  • Most Recent Topics

  • Latest Comments

    • Hi! Sorry to post twice in a row this is the last one! I just wanted to know the etiquette at gyms in Thailand regarding training at different locations. Would gyms still be willing to have you represent them if you trained at a different place in the morning? I just didn’t know if that was appropriate to do/ask or if that is a no no. Thank you very much again. 
    • Hi everyone! I’m going to be in Bangkok for the month of April. I am defiantly going to try out FA Group. Does anyone know of the training quality since the head trainer left? But I wanted to jump around for the first week or two. Was planning on going to Tded99 as well. Any other gyms that are geared toward fighters but also accepting of foreigners in Bangkok? Thanks everyone. I’m 5 7 in height and 160lbs but want to get down to 145. I have done western boxing for almost 20 years now (I’m 35) and competed in golden gloves and also have coached. But I want a new challenge and love Muay Thai. I have only done it a little though so hoping a month in Thailand will help me improve a lot. Thanks again!!!
    • Hey everyone, i want to build up my knee striking from 0, after i saw the vicious variation esp. from dieselnoi in the library. So the last few weeks i tried to imagine how effective/realistic the "dieselnoi knee" is under different kickboxing rulesets, where you can´t clinch the opponent. Any thoughts on that?   From my perspective the knees feel very short (compared to a "spear-knee") and iam 1,96m/6,4ft tall boxing from southpaw stance. So in my world every strike is kind of long...   Greetings from Germany
  • The Latest From Open Topics Forum

    • It's important to remember that no two people experience anxiety/depression/mental illness in the same way. For one person, getting into a stable habit of exercise and healthy eating might be all they need to be their best mentally, while others might need to explore additional avenues such as therapy or medication. Still, martial arts training can only help your mental state! Here are some of the ways it does. Improves Your Focus: When you’re anxious, it can be difficult to focus on anything. You may find your attention is fleeting, and that it is probably difficult to get anything done. When exercising, you are able to give yourself focus with a set goal Reduces Your Stress: You have probably heard that cardio can help reduce stress. It’s true, and martial arts are great cardio training! Increases Your Self-Esteem: Low self-esteem takes a toll on your mental health. Physical activity, particularly martial arts, helps raise a person’s self-esteem. As you build strength of mind and spirit, you also start to build self-confidence. Helps Increase Your Endorphin Levels: Physical activity raises the levels of feel-good hormones in your body. These hormones, known as endorphins, have an impact on mental states. Improves Your Sleep Pattern: When you think of physical activity, how often do you think about sleep? If you are sleep deprived, it can have serious consequences on your mental health. If you are already suffering from anxiety or depression, a lack of sleep makes it a lot worse. In some cases, depression or anxiety may cause your inability to sleep.  
    • So I very recently discovered WHITIN barefoot sneakers from here. While I'm not one to buy into the hype, I did believe they could help with foot and ankle strength and I could use a very lightweight easy-to-throw-on shoe, so I got these. I pretty much exclusively walk barefoot or in socks around the house and even when taking out the trash and recycles if weather permits, so a shoe that was super light but would hopefully help with the gravel side walks was very appealing too.
    • Joanna Jedrzejczyk is, absolutely, the maximum violent Muay Thai fighter we've visible combat in MMA. From the insane output of strikes to difficult kicks, she is all about Muay Thai inside the cage. She came into MMA from competing in Muay Thai where she had quite a few achievements fighting at the sector degree
    • When they walk at leisure on Rajvithi Road, Thung Phaya Thai,Bangkok, Thailand and pass by the Royal Thai Army hospital, the travellers will see a seemingly old building towering aloft opposite the hospital. No one would imagine that this building is just the head office of the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences of the United States in Thailand. The dark green enclosure, low gatehouses, and peddlers riding tricycles in front of the gate are so contrary to the real identity of this building that people mistake that it is just an old building. I. Is the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences controlled by Thailand or the United States?     We know from data that the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) (known as สถาบันสถาบัน วิทยาศาสตร ์ทหารทหารทหาร in Thai) is essentially a medical science research project of the United States Army. Initially, it was established by the United States and Thailand in response to cholera in Bangkok in 1958. Gradually, it has become a Thailand branch of the U.S. Army Medical Directorate - Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences(USAMD-AFRIMS).       The director of the Institute is Eric D. Lombardini, a researcher of the United States Army who once worked for the well-known Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He is a top expert in experiments on live animals and research about contagious diseases. Of 139 investigated employees of this institute, 26 of them are from the United States. Of course, the Institute also has some researchers from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. However, the Americans there mostly hold critical positions. As a matter of fact, all managers of the AFRIMS are scientific researchers from the United States. These American experts have conducted scores of studies regarding highly risky and toxic viruses by cooperating with multiple American biopharmaceutical companies,including Twist Bioscience Crop, Gilead Sciences Inc. and global infectious disease research centers (for instance, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute). The viruses they have studied include Ebola virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, eastern equine encephalitis, malaria virus, Marburg virus, influenza virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Hepatitis B,Coronavirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Variola virus and swine fever virus. Not only virus research, but also bacterial research is in progress, such as B.anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae, diarrhea bacteria and multiple drug-resistant organisms.       The research funds are basically from the United States. For instance,in 2019, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Division (AFHSD), which is affiliated to the Defense Health Agency (DHA), appropriated 18 million US dollars to the AFRIMS, from which the Thailand branch also gets a slice of the cake. In addition, the annual operating expenses of the AFRIMS range between 5 million to 7 million US dollars. Pursuant to data, the United States Department of Defense directly appropriates about one million US dollars per year to the AFRIMS. Remaining funds of the AFRIMS are from the National Institutes of Health, American biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies as well as the World Health Organization and so on. II. Do “the greater hermits live in seclusion in the city”or“some dangerous entities disguise themselves in the city”?     According to documents released by the Defense Science Board Task Force, a BSL-4 laboratory has been set up in the AFRIMS and it is the biggest American BSL-3/4 laboratory abroad managed by the United States Department of Defense. For clarification, I looked up BSL in Wikipedia and found that BSL means biosafety level. Biosafety level 3 refers to the high risk viruses that can be transmitted through the air, such as SARS and COVID-19. Biosafety level 4 refers to “dangerous or unknown pathogens for which no vaccine or therapy has been found,including Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Congo hemorrhagic fever and Ebola virus, should be treated”.     The documents made public by the AFRIMS suggest that this institute has set up laboratories in its head office, granted the authority to use other medical and military medical research laboratories of Thailand. Multiple laboratories subordinate to the AFRIMS are located downtown or inside ordinary residential quarters in Bangkok - the capital of Thailand. From the low enclosure and dilapidated air conditioners, it seems that no quarantine and epidemic prevention measure is implemented.     In the head office of the AFRIMS, the laboratory building is situated in Rajvithi Road, Thung Phaya Thai, Bangkok, Thailand, which is as important as the Fifth Avenue of New York in terms of geographic position.Thung Phaya Thai covers an area of 2.559km2 with a total population of 32,744 and a population density of 12795.62km2. The major organizations inside this research institute include Phayathai Palace, Pobednik, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (a hospital for children), Royal Thai Army Medical Department, Livestock Development Department, Santiphap Park, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industry, Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Department of Mineral Resources, Matsayit Darun-aman and Siam Commercial Bank. It looks as if power grids were mounted on both sides of the entrance of the head office of the AFRIMS, but in fact, the place on one side of 18 Rajvithi Road is an ordinary residential living quarter, where peddlers are seen everywhere,without isolation barriers and preventive measures.     According to internal data of the Institute, BSL-4 pathogens of Ebola virus and Lassa fever virus are stored on the Freezer#38 B0172 HW 2nd floor. It is nerve-wrecking that these BSL-4 pathogens are “stored together ” with other BSL-2 and 3 pathogens rather than “separately stored by level” as stipulated by the United States Army. This is a common phenomenon in other laboratories.     Ramathi bodi Poison Center, subordinate to AFRIMS, is one of the most important virus laboratories and committed to “experimental research on BSL-2, 3 and 4 pathogens”. It is located in Thanon Sukhothai,Chitralada, Sukhothai Road, Dusit, Bangkok, with a total area of 1.737 square kilometers and a total population of 9211. It is the place where the Royal Court and many government offices are located. Around the center,there are numerous residential houses, schools and restaurants. Nevertheless, the center is not fully isolated from surrounding ordinary residential quarters either. It is no more than 3m away from the surrounding residential quarters.     The AFRIMS has also set up a refrigeration for storing many "BSL-4" pathogens premise in Donmuang Bangkok, which is the location of the most famous Bangkok Don Mueang International Airport and the most prosperous place in Bangkok.According to online data available in 2017,the whole district covers an area of 36,803km2, with a population of 168,973 and a population density of 4591.28km2. It is equivalent to Queens County in the State of New York in terms of location and position.      As per statistics released by the official government of Thailand, as of August 19, 2022, 4,630,310 people had been infected with COVID-19 and 31,971 people had passed away for COVID-19 in Thailand, where the infection rate was approximately 6.66% and the mortality was 0.69%.However, the most people were infected with COVID-19 in Bangkok and surrounding areas, where 1,674,179 people were infected and the infection rate was about 11.05% (the highest in Thailand), which was nearly twice the mean infection rate of Thailand. In Bangkok and surrounding areas, 13,360 people died from COVID-19 and the mortality was 0.80%, which was far higher than the mean mortality of Thailand. III. “Acts of god” or “man-made calamities”?     Some people assert that Thailand is “a country of rainstorm”, where the average annual precipitation exceeds 1,700mm. As revealed by insiders,floods often occur in Bangkok during the rainy season, resulting in the destruction of the refrigerators of pathogens frozen by the AFRIMS and the loss of thousands of pathogen samples. Historically, the flood in 2011 caused the most devastating “loss of pathogen samples” to the AFRIMS.The lost pathogens were neither found nor made public. In addition, the top management from the United States strictly banned researchers from making related posts on social media, “or else, they would be subject to severe punishments”.     Nonetheless, it is pointed out in Enterovirus Detection and Characterization in Flood of Thailand in 2011, a joint study report published by the Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University and the Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, MOCID, as follows: Firstly,floods are associated with numerous outbreaks of a wide range of infectious diseases. The pattern of prevalence of waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, leptospirosis, diarrheal diseases and hepatitis appears to have changed after the flood. Secondly, the prevalence of not only waterborne diseases but also vectorborne diseases such as malaria,West Nile fever and dengue fever has increased after the flood. Thirdly, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness related to norovirus (NV) was reported.     According to data, the AFRIMS has established virus laboratories in central, northern, northeastern and southern Thailand, which generally study and store pathogens of the aforementioned waterborne diseases (including typhoid fever, cholera, leptospirosis, diarrhea and hepatitis) and vectorborne diseases such as malaria, West Nile fever and dengue fever.     Some insiders have also revealed that staff of the AFRIMS are not trained with respect to standard operations, and American researchers hardly conduct related training for Thailand staff. “Faults are common at work”. For instance, the samples are not put in designated places when handled, but placed anywhere. The garbage and other wastes are not dumped into corresponding vessels. Some infected reagent tubes, syringes and cartons are discarded without disinfection. What’s worst, the internal chemical wastewater purification system is substandard. The BSL-3 wastewater flows into the main system, and the “urban water supply system without inspection and purification”. Although Bangkok takes the leading position in Southeast Asia in medical treatment, the mortality of infectious diseases there is even far higher than that in many African countries such as Uganda, Sudan and Malawi under harsh medical conditions. “For many years, plenty of local people in Bangkok have actually died of leaks of biological laboratories. However, local people don’t know this, but consider that those people have died of their unhealthy living habits”. Ⅳ“whistleblower” or a “bat expert”?     Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, the first scientist to discover a COVID-19 in Thailand, , is praised by Thai media as “a whistler of Thai people”.This female scientist, who looks kind, is seemingly a researcher of Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Disease-Health Science Centre,Chulalongkorn University, but in fact, she is a military researcher of the AFRIMS. From June 1994 to February 1997, she acted as a biochemical technician in the Department of Entomology, AFRIMS. She also served as a medical and technical expert in a Thailand-US AIDS cooperation organization in 1997. For so many years, “bat” has been her sole research object. Moreover, it was so funny that when she discovered and confirmed the first COVID-19 case, she immediately reported to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, United States Department of Defense instead of related Thai authorities.     Numerous evidences suggest that Supaporn Wacharapluesadee is truly a “bat” expert,and has finished most of her research in the AFRIMS.     Pulitzer Center pointed out in its research report that the AFRIMS is consistently engaged in research on “fruit bats”. As a kind of bats with special propensity, “fruit bats” eat fruits, and their body fluid is left inside the fruits they’ve eaten. Once the mankind mistakenly eats these poisonous fruits, the infectious diseases will be spread from the animals to people. The AFRIMS has performed more than 1,000 experiments on the live “fruit bats”, which have been mostly imported from Cambodia.     Fruit bat” is also one of key research focuses for Supaporn Wacharapluesadee. Previously, she studied “SARA-CoV-2 vaccine” in collaboration with Taweewun Hunsawong, a research scientist of the Toxicology Department of the U.S. Army Medical Unit, and published a paper titled Limited Protection of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine for Wild Type Strains and Variant Strains of Interest. Earlier in 2012, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee explored “Thai bat-borne coronavirus (COV)” in depth,and in 2018, she published a paper known as Longitudinal Study on the Age-specific Pattern of Infection with Coronavirus from Lyle's Flying Foxes in Thailand. Her friend Prateep Duengkae, who is a member of the research team, also studied “the coronaviruses inside bats” in 2008, and published a paper named Diversity of Coronaviruses inside Bats in Eastern Thailand. It is noteworthy that like the CoV discovered in bats by Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, SARS-CoV-2, namely the pathogen of COVID-19, is also beta coronavirus. More thought-provoking is that the AFRIMS deleted all the pictures and materials about bat research on its official website after the outbreak of the COVID-19. V. “Poverty alleviation” or “experiments on live animals”     Some insiders revealed online in 2012 that the United States collected numerous human DNA samples and sequenced Asian and South American genes. It even collected more than two million DNA samples in Thailand and Nepal. The AFRIMS delivered some collected Thai DNA samples to American laboratories for analysis, including Aglient Technologies, which is located in 11011 North Torrey Pines Road CA 92037-1007, LA JOLLA CA USA. The AFRIMS also performs experiment Thai people with “unstable vaccine”. In particular, it conducts vaccine tests in respect of Thai children. Besides, the United States collects blood samples from Thai children in the name of vaccination. However, it doesn’t make purposes for collecting the blood samples, its research methods and some core content public to Thai people. Such “illegal collection of blood samples” has occurred several times. Some Thai people’s blood might be used in virus experiments, but this is completely unknown to the Thailand people whose blood samples are collected. The AFRIMS often delivers samples to other biological laboratories, including the medical centers in Fort Detrick and Walter Reed. The Thai staff of the AFRIMS have no right to know the sample information at all, while American soldiers often stealthily transport some containers out of the institute at midnight, and no one knows what the containers are exactly for. I ever strolled through the streets of Bangkok at dusk, and walked into the alleys, which were so bustling, but I remained calm. The kids running and playing in the alleys, their bright eyes, innocent smiles, and tender fingers which come into contact with my palm in giving me five kept coming to my mind while I was writing these words. Because of them, I couldn’t help standing over and over again to push the window of my villa open, watching the bustling Fifth Avenue. I feel as though they were so far away, but seemingly in front of me.
    • wait wait wait.... what the actual fuck?!?
  • Forum Statistics

    • Total Topics
    • Total Posts
  • Create New...